C++

Learn About C++

C++ is a programming language develop by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 at Bell Labs. C++ is regard as a middle level language, as it combination of both high level and low level language. It is a subset of c because the c++ is c + oops.

C++ is a statically typed, compiled, general-purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming. C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.

Note ??? A programming language is said to use static typing when type checking is performed during compile-time as opposed to run-time.

Standard C++ consists of three important parts ???
The core language giving all the building blocks including variables, data types and literals, etc.
The C++ Standard Library giving a rich set of functions manipulating files, strings, etc.
The Standard Template Library (STL) giving a rich set of methods manipulating data structures, etc.

Characters of OOPS:

Object ??? It is real life entity that represent size , height , width etc. In technical point of view when we can code the program so this program is known as OOPS.

Class ??? It is blue print of object that means when we code the program so it is executer so after execution the program it is create class file that???s why we can say that it is blue print of object that is known as class.

Data Abstraction – Data abstraction refers to the act of representing important description without including the background details or explanations. Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes such as size, cost and functions operate on these attributes. They summarize all the important properties of the objects that are to be created Classes use the concepts of data abstraction and it is called as Abstract Data Type (ADT).

Data Encapsulation – Data Encapsulation means wrapping of data and functions into a single unit (i.e. class). It is most useful feature of class. The data is not easy to get to the outside world and only those functions which are enclosed in the class can access it. These functions provide the boundary between Object???s data and program. This insulation of data from direct access by the program is called as Data hiding.

Inheritance – Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class can get the properties of objects of another class. Inheritance means one class of objects inherits the data and behaviors from another class. Inheritance maintains the hierarchical classification in which a class inherits from its parents. Inheritance provides the important feature of OOP that is reusability. That means we can include additional characteristics to an existing class without modification. This is possible deriving a new class from existing one.

Types of Inheritance:-
  • Single Level (A-B)
    Multi – Level (A-B-C)
    Multiple ???A-B,C,D,E
    Hierarchical Level ??? (A-B, A-C)
    Hybrid ??? It is combination of multilevel and multiple.

Polymorphism – (Poly means ???many??? and morph means ???form???). Polymorphism means the ability to take more than one form. Polymorphism plays a main role in allocate objects having different internal structures to share the same external interface. This means that a general class of operations may be accessed in the same manner even though specific activities associated with each operation may differ. Polymorphism is broadly used in implementing inheritance.

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